Correlations between Leaf Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium and Leaf Chlorophyll, Anthocyanins and Carotenoids Content at Vegetative and Generative Stage of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygealina Del.)
Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Asteraceae) is a nutritional and medicinal plant that is used widely throughout tropical Africa and other countries. The leaves are proved to have strong antioxidant property. The concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, anthocyanins and carotenoids in five different leaf positions of vegetative and generative phases were studied. The aim of the study is to understand and to correlate the content of the three nutrients and the bioactive compounds along the five leaf positions at vegetative and generative stage of the crop growth. The study showed that the concentration of chlorophyll a and b was higher, and anthocyanin concentration was almost zero in the generative than in the vegetative stage. The leaf concentration of N, P, and K were higher in vegetative than in generative stage. At vegetative stage, N positively correlated with chlorophyll a at the 1st leaf; K had strong correlations with anthocyanins at the 2nd and 3rd leaf and with chlorophyll a at the 2nd and 5th, and with chlorophyll b and carotenoids at the 5th leaf. At the generative stage, P had a strong positive correlation with carotenoids at 4th and 5th leaves, and K positively correlated with chlorophyll a and b at 5th leaf. The findings suggest that bitter leaf is better to be harvested at vegetative stage, and that potassium level is important to increase anthocyanins and carotenoids content.
Abosi, A. O., and Raseroka, B. H. (2003). In vivo antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina. British Journal of Biomedical Science 60, 89–91.
Adaramoye, O. A., Akintayo, O., Achem, J., and Fafunso, M. A. (2008). Lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Vascular Health and Risk Management 4, 235–241.
Adaramoye, O., Ogungbenro, B., Anyaegbu, O., and Fafunso, M. (2008). Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin against radiation-induced liver damage in rats. Journal of Radiation Research 49, 123–131.
Alawa, C. B. I., Adamu, A. M., Gefu, J. O., Ajanusi, O. J., Abdu, P. A., Chiezey, N. P., and Bowman, D. D. (2003). In vitro screening of two Nigerian medicinal plants (Vernonia amygdalina and Annona senegalensis) for anthelmintic activity. Veterinary Parasitology 113, 73–81.
Andrzejewska, J., Sadowska, K., Klóska, L, Rogowski, L. (2015). The effect of plant age and harvest time on the content of chosen components and antioxidative potential of black chokeberry fruit. Acta Scientiarum Hortorum Cultus 14, 105-114.
Asante, D. B., Effah-Yeboah, E., Barnes, P., Abban, H. A., Ameyaw, E. O., Boampong, J. N., and Dadzie, J. B. (2016). Antidiabetic effect of young and old ethanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina: A comparative study. Journal of Diabetes Research 2016, 1–13.
Butterly, B. R., and Buzzell, R. I. (1977). The relationship between chlorophyll content and rate of photosynthesis in soybeans. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 57, 1–5.
Chalker-Scott, L. (1999). Environmental significance of anthocyanins in plant stress responses. Photochemistry and Photobiology 70, 1–9.
Challand, S., and Willcox, M. (2009). A clinical trial of the traditional medicine Vernonia amygdalina in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 15, 1231–1237.
Chenard, C. H., Kopsell, D. A., and Kopsell, D. E. (2005). Nitrogen concentration affects nutrient and carotenoid accumulation in parsley. Journal of Plant Nutrition 28, 285–297.
Christensen, L. P., and Brandt, K. (2007). Acetylenes and Psoralens In “Plant Secondary Metabolites: Occurrence, Structure and Role in the Human Diet” (A. Crozier, M.N. Clifford, H. Ashihara, eds.) pp137–173. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Delgado, R., Gonzalez, M. R., and Martin, P. (2006). Interaction effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on anthocyanin composition and chromatic features of tempranillo grapes. Journal International des Science de la Vigne et du Vin 40, 141–150.
Demmig-Adams, B., and Adams, W. W. (2000). Harvesting sunlight safely. Nature 403, 371–374.
Elizabeth J. Johnson. (2002). The role of carotenoids in human health - status and tendencies. Nutrition in Clinical Care 5, 56–65.
Erasto, P., Grierson, D. S., and Afolayan, A. J. (2006). Bioactive sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106, 117–120.
Erasto, P., Grierson, D. S., and Afolayan, A. J. (2007a). Antioxidant constituents in Vernonia amygdalina leaves. Pharmaceutical Biology 45, 195–199.
Erasto, P., Grierson, D. S., and Afolayan, A. J. (2007b). Evaluation of antioxidant activity and the fatty acid profile of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina growing in South Africa. Food Chemistry 104, 636–642.
Fleischer, W. E. (1935). The relation between chlorophyll content and rate of photosynthesis. The Journal of General Physiology 18, 573–597.
Gross, M. (2004). Flavonoids and cardiovascular disease. Pharmaceutical Biology 42, 21–35.
Gruben, G. J. H. and Denton, O. A. (2004). “Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2: Vegetables”. 668pp. PROTA Foundation/Backhuys Publishers.
Hughes, N. M., Morley, C. B., and Smith, W. K. (2007). Coordination of anthocyanin decline and photosynthetic maturation in juvenile leaves of three deciduous tree species. New Phytologist 175, 675–685.
Ibrahim, M. H., Jaafar, H. Z. E., Rahmat, A., and Rahman, Z. A. (2012). Involvement of nitrogen on flavonoids, glutathione, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities of malaysian medicinal plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah). International Journal of Molecular Sciences 13, 393–408.
Igile, G. 0., Oleszek, W., Jurzysta, M., Burda, S., Fafunso, M., and Fasanmade, A. A. (1994). Flavonoids from Vernonia amygdalina and their antioxidant activities. J.Agric. Food Chem. 42, 2445–2448.
Iroanaya, O., Okpuzor, J., and Mbagwu, H. (2010). Anti-nociceptive and anti phlogistic actions of a polyherbal decoction. International Journal of Pharmacology 6, 31–36.
Izevbigie, E. B., Bryant, J. L., and Walker, A. (2004). A novel natural inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and human breast cancer cell growth. Experimental Biology and Medicine 229, 163–169.
Jisaka, M., Kawanaka, M., Sugiyama, H., Takegawa, K., Huffman, M. A., Ohigashi, H., and Koshimizu, K. (1992). Antischistosomal activities of sesquiterpene lactones and steroid glucosides from Vernonia amygdalina, possibly used by wild chimpanzees against parasite-related diseases. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 56, 845–846.
Jisaka, M., Ohigashi, H., Takegawa, K., Hirota, M., Irie, R., Huffman, M. A., and Koshimizu, K. (1993). Steroid glucosides from Vernonia amygdalina, a possible chimpanzee medicinal plant. Phytochemistry 34, 409–413.
Kopsell, D. A., Kopsell, D. E., and Curran-Celentano, J. (2007). Carotenoid pigments in kale are influenced by nitrogen concentration and form. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture 87, 900–907.
Kupchan, S. M., Hemingway, R. J., Karim, A., and Werner, D. (1969). Vernodalinand vernomygdin, two new cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from Vernonia amygdalina Del. The Journal of Organic Chemistry 34, 3908–3911.
Leonidas, M., Faye, D., Justin, K. N., Viateur, U., and Angélique, N. (2013). Evaluation of the effectiveness of two medicinal plants Vernonia amygdalina and Leonotis nepetaefolia on the gastrointestinal parasites of goats in Rwanda : Case study of Huye and Gisagara districts. Journal of Veteterinary Medicine and Animal Health 5, 229–236.
Longstreth, D. J., Nobel, P. S., and Deb, G. (1980). Nutrient influences on leaf photosynthesis. Plant Physiology 65, 541–543.
Marschner, P. (2012). “Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants”. 651pp. Academic Press: Elsevier Ltd, 3rd edition, United States of America.
Michael, U. A., David, B. U., Theophine, C. O., Philip, F. U., Ogochukwu, A. M., and Benson, V. A. (2010). Antidiabetic effect of combined aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdlina and metformin in rats. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy 1, 197–202.
Njan, A. a, Adzu, B., Agaba, A. G., Byarugaba, D., Díaz-Llera, S., and Bangsberg, D. R. (2008). The analgesic and antiplasmodial activities and toxicology of Vernonia amygdalina. Journal of Medicinal Food 11, 574–581.
Oriakhi, K., Oikeh, E. I., Ezeugwu, N., Anoliefo, O., Aguebor, O., and Omoregie, E.S. (2013). Comparative antioxidant activities of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum leaves. Journal of Agricultural Science 6, 13–20.
Sha’A, K., Oguche, S., Watila, I., and Ikpa, T. (2011). In vitro antimalarial activity of the extracts of Vernonia amygdalina commonly used in traditional medicine in Nigeria. Science World Journal 6, 5–9.
Shaikh, N. P., Adjei, M. B., and Scholberg, J. M. (2008). Interactive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on leaf anthocyanins, tissue nutrient concentrations, and dry-matter yield of Floralta limpograss during short day length. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39, 1006–1015.
Sims, D., and Gamon, J. (2002). Relationship between leaf pigment content and spectral reflectance across a wide range species, leaf structures and development stages. Remote Sensing of Environment 81, 337–354.
Susanti, H., Aziz, S. A., Melati, M., and Susanto, S. (2011). Protein and anthocyanin production of waterleaf shoots (Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd) at different levels of nitrogen+potassium and harvest intervals. Jurnal Agro Indonesia, 39, 119–123.
Taiz, L., and Zeiger, E. (2010). “Plant Physiology”. 690 pp. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, 5th edition, Sunderland.
Uchida, R.S. (2000). Recommended plant tissue nutrient levels for some vegetable, fruit, and ornamental foliage and flowering plants in Hawaii In “Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii’s Soils, Approaches to Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture” (J.A. Silva and R.S. Uchida, eds) pp 57–65. University of Hawaii Press.
Ulrychov. M., and Sosnova, V. (1970). Effect of phosphorus deficiency on anthocyanin content in tomato plants. Biologia Plantarum 12, 231‒235.
Vlietinck, A. J., Van Hoof, L., Totté, J., Lasure, A., Berghe, D. Vanden, Rwangabo, P. C., and Mvukiyumwami, J. (1995). Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 46, 31–47.
Zhao, D., Oosterhuis, D. M., and Bednarz, C. W. (2001). Influence of potassium deficiency on photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, and chloroplast ultrastructure of cotton plants. Photosynthetica 39, 103–109.
All publications by Journal of Tropical Crop Science is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.