Nonparametric Stability Analysis of Starch Content of Gamma Irradiated Cassava at Three Locations in West Java, Indonesia

  • Ferra Anggita Agustina Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • Nurul Khumaida Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
  • Sintho Wahyuning Ardie Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
  • Muhamad Syukur Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
Keywords: gravimetric, mutant, , static stability, , dynamic stability, nonparametric


Cassava is one of the largest starch producing tuber crops in Indonesia. Tapioca from cassava starch can be used as a raw materials for a variety of foods including biscuits, instant porridge, meatball, sausage, nuggets, and flour condiment. Breeding programs to improve cassava yield and starch content by using mutagen gamma rays irradiation was tested in four cassava generations (M1V4). Cassava is propagated by stem cuttings and the new characteristic obtained from gamma irradiation mutation is stable and can be passed from one generation to the next. Cassava mutants were obtained by evaluating the performance in different environmental conditions. The testing of yield adaptability and stability through a series of multi location is an important step before a new variety can be released. The aim of this research was to compare nonparametric stability and to evaluate the stability of the starch content of 16 genotypes (14 mutants and 2 varieties) in three locations in West Java Province i.e. Tapos (Depok), Cikarawang (Bogor), and Ciseeng (Bogor). Experiments were conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications nested in each environment. Testing of yield stability in this study used four approaches with 10 parameters of nonparametric method. Starch content was estimated using gravimetric method. Based on frequency stability ranking of starch content from gravimetric method the G63142 genotype had the highest starch content estimation (29.99%), and the top five genotypes with high starch content were G63142, G61142, “Manggu”, G62151, and G63124. G61142 was categorized as genotype with static and dynamic stability, therefore this genotype is a very potential mutant to be released, whereas G63124 is categorized as a genotype with a static stability. Genotypes G63142, G62151, and “Manggu” had variable but relatively high starch content.


Akcura, M., Taner, K.S., and Ayranci, R. (2006). Parametric stability analyses for grain yield of durum wheat. Plant Soil and Environment 6, 254-261.
Anasari, N.R., Kendarini, N., and Purnamaningsih, S.L. (2017). Genotype x environment interaction of four genotype of pakchoy (Brassica rapa L.) at three location. Produksi Tanaman 5, 54-60.
[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. (2017). “Ekspor-Impor Pati Ubi Kayu 2017”. [December 13, 2017].
Baye, T.M., Abebe, T., and Wilke, R.A. (2011). Genotype environment interactions and their translational implications. Personalized Medicine 8, 59-70.
Chahal, G.S., and Gosal, S.S. (2002). “Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding Biotechnologial and Conventional Approaches”. Narosa Publishing House. New Delhi.
De Vita, P., Mastrangelo, A.M., Matteu, L., Mazzucotelli, E., Virzi, N., Palumbo, M., Lo Storto, M., Rizza, F., and Cattiveli, L. (2010). Genetic improvement effects on yield stability in durum wheat genotypes grown in Italy. Field Crop Research 199, 68-77.
Fahreza, A. (2014). “Karakterisasi Morfologi dan Pertumbuhan Beberapa Genotipe Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Hasil Induksi Mutasi menggunakan Iradiasi Sinar Gamma”. [Thesis]. Bogor Agricultural University.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. (2017). “Food Outlook, Biannual Report on Global Food Markets”. [December 13, 2017].
Fox, P.N., Skovmand, B.K., Braun, H.J., and Comier, R. (1990). Yield and adaptation of hexaploid spring triticale. International Journal of Plant Breeding 47, 57-64.
Haloho, J.D. (2014). “Pengolahan Ubi Kayu dalam Upaya Percepatan Diversifikasi Pangan di Kalimantan Barat’. pp 775-786. Balitkabi. Malang. Indonesia.
Harahap, Z. (1982). “Pedoman Pemuliaan Padi”. Lembaga Biologi Nasional. Indonesia.
Huehn, M. (1990). Nonparametric measures of phenotpic stability. International Journal of Plant Breeding 7, 189-194.
Kang, M.S. (1988). A rank-sum method for selecting high yielding, stable corn genotypes. Cereal Research Communication 16,113-115.
Kawano, K., Fukuda, W.M.G., and Cenpukdee, U. (1987). Genetic and envionmental effect on dry matter content of cassava root. Crop Science 27, 69-74.
Lebot, V. (2009). “Tropical Root and Tuber Crops : Cassava, Sweet Potato, Yams, and Aroids”. CABI. United Kingdom.
Maharani, S. (2015). “Iradiasi Sinar Gamma pada Lima Genotipe Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) dan Pengujian Awal Stabilitas Mutan”. [Thesis]. Bogor Agricultural University.
Mohammadi, R., Roostaei, M., Ansari, Y., Aghaee, M., and Amri, A. (2010). Relationships of phenotypic stability measures for genotypes of three cereal crops. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 90, 819-930.
Murtiningrum, Bosawer, E.F., Istalaksana, P., and Jading, A. (2012). Karakterisasi umbi dan pati lima kultivar ubi kayu (Manihot esculenta). Scientific Journal of Agricultural Science 3, 81-90.
Mut, Z., Aydin, N., Bayramoglu, H.O., and Ozcan, H. (2009). Interpreting genotipe x environment interaction in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes using nonparametric measures. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 33,127-137.
Nassar, R.F., and Huehn, M. (1987). Studies on estimation on phenotypic stability: tests of significance for nonparametric measures of phenotypic stabilty. Biometrics 43, 45-53.
[PERMENTAN] Peraturan Kementrian Pertanian. (2011). “Varietas unggul”. http:// [December 13, 2017].
Rahadi, V.P., Syukur, M., Sujiprihati, S., and Yunianti, R. (2013). Nonparametric stability analysis of yield for nine chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes in eight environments. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science 35, 193-200.
Sabaghnia, N., Karimizadech, R., and Mohammadi, M. (2012). The use of corrected and uncorrected nonparametric staility measurements in durum wheat muti-environments trial. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 10, 722-730.
Satoto, S., Utomo, T.W., Widyastuti, Y., and Rumanti, I.A. (2009). “Submission of release for new hybrid rice variety H45, H47, H64, H68, and H78. [Paper of Variety Release on Trial]”. pp 20. Balai Besar Penelitian Padi. Subang. Indonesia.
Subekti, I. (2013). “Karakterisasi Morfologi dan Pertumbuhan Ubi Kayu ‘Gajah’ Asal Kalimantan Timur Hasil Iradiasi Sinar Gamma”. [Thesis]. Bogor Agricultural University.
Subekti, I., Khumaida, N., Ardie, S.W., and Syukur, M. (2018). Evaluasi hasil dan kandungan pati mutan ubi kayu hasil iradiasi sinar gamma generasi M1V4. Indonesian Journal of Agronomy 46, 64-70.
Syukur, M., Sujiprihati, S., and Yunianti, R. (2012). “Teknik Pemuliaan Tanaman”. Penebar Swadaya. Indonesia.
Thennarasu, K. (1995). “On certain nonparametric procedures for studying genotype-environment interactions and yield stability”. PJ School, New Delhi.
Zulhayana, S. (2010). “Klasifikasi Genotipe dengan Pendekatan Indeks Stabilitas Nonparametrik” [Thesis]. Bogor Agricultural University.