Application of Rapid Multiplication Technique Using Mini Cutting and NPK Compound Fertilizer to Increase Production of Sweet Potato Cuttings (Ipomoea batatas L.)

  • Ni Kadek Ema Sustia Dewi Seed Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Jalan Meranti, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • M. Rahmad Suhartanto Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Jalan Meranti Road, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • Suwarto Suwarto Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Jalan Meranti Road, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
Keywords: tuber, vines, vegetative, clones, propagation

Abstract

Rapid Multiplication Technique (RMT) is a technique used to produce large scale cuttings of sweet potato in a short period by using mini cuttings and proper fertilizer management. The research was carried out from October 2019 to March 2020 and composed of two experiments The first experiment involved a randomized complete block design, with clones (“Ase Kapas” and “Ase Merah”) as the first factor, and tuber weight (150 ± 25 g, 250 ± 25 g, and 350 ± 25 g) as the second factor. The second experiment was arranged in a split-plot design involving different doses of NPK compound fertilizer (as main plot) and different source of cuttings (as subplots). The different doses included NPK 16:16:16 at 100 kg.ha-1 (0.3 g per polybag), 200 kg.ha-1 (0.6 g per polybag), 300 kg.ha-1 (0.9 g per polybag), and without fertilizer as control. The source of cuttings were from the tip, middle and bottom stem of the plants. Results showed that the “Ase Kapas” showed the highest number and the longest shoots, number of nodes, and length of vines. Additionally, tuber weight of ± 350 g produced the highest number of shoots. When it comes to NPK compound fertilizer treatment, a dose of 0.9 g per polybag increased cutting production in “Ase Kapas”, and also responded better to fertilizer treatment. On the other hand, dose of 0.3 g increased cutting production in “Ase Merah”. “Ase Kapas” produced more cuttings from the middle stem, whereas “Ase Merah” produced more cuttings from the . The application of RMT in “Ase Kapas” produced cuttings with ratio of 1:31, which is higher than those in “Ase Merah” with a ratio of 1:17.

 

References

Adhikari, R.C. (2005). Performance of different size true potato seed seedling tubers at Khumaltar. Nepal Agricultural Research Journal 6, 28–34.
Ajie, D. and Setiawan, A. (2017). Pengaruh sumber dan posisi penanaman stek terhadap produksi ubi Cilembu. Buletin Agrohorti 5, 283-292.
Arifin, M.S., Nugroho, A., and Suryanto, A. (2014). Kajian panjang tunas dan bobot umbi bibit terhadap produksi tanaman kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.) varietas Granola. Jurnal Produksi Tanaman 2, 221-229.
Atu, L.L. (2013). “Studies on Propagation Materials and Growing Conditions for Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] Production [Thesis]. The University of Queensland. Queensland.
Barbosa, E.R.M., Tomlinson, K.W., Carvalheiro, L.G., Kirkman, K., De Bie, S., Prins, H.H.T., and Van Langevelde, F. (2014). Short-term effect of nutrient availability and rainfall distribution on biomass production and leaf nutrient content of savanna tree species. Plos One 9, 1-9.
CIP., AVRDC., IBPGR. (1991). “Descriptors for Sweet Potato”. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources.
De Silva, K.P.U., Premathilake, A., and Jayawickrama, H.D. (1990). Chapter 5: Sweet potato in the rice fallow environments of Sri Lanka. In “Sweet Potato in Tropical Asia No. 171/2000” (E.T. Rasco and V. R. Amante, eds.). Council for Agriculture Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development. Los Banos, Phillipines.
Djufry, F., Lestari, M.S., Arifuddin, and Soplanit, A. (2011). Pertumbuhan dan produksi ubi jalar di dataran rendah pada berbagai varietas dan sumber stek. Jurnal Agrivigor 10, 228-234.
Doberman, A. and Fairhust, T.H. (2000). “Rice Nutrient Disorders and Nutrient Management”. Potash and Phosphate Institute of Canada and International Rice Research Institute.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 2010. “Quality Declared Planting Material: Protocols and Standards for Vegetatively Propagated Crops”. Food and Agriculture Organization.
Gruneberg, W., Mwanga, R., Andrade, M., and Dapaah, H. (2009). Challenge paper 3: Sweet potato breeding. www.sweetpotatoknowledge.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/10 /Challenge1SweetpotatoBreeding.pdf [August 26, 2019].
Indiati, S.W. and Saleh, N. (2010). Hama boleng pada tanaman ubi jalar dan pengendaliannya. Bul Palawija 19, 27-37.
[Kepmentan] Keputusan Menteri Pertanian Republik Indonesia. (2016). “Pedoman Teknis Sertifikasi Benih Bina Tanaman Pangan nomor 316/HK.150/C/12/2016”. Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia.
Lencha, B., Birksew, A., and Dikale, G. (2016). The evaluation of growth performance of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Awassa var. by using different type of vine cuttings. Food Science and Quality Management 54, 55-65.
Marschner, P. (2012). “Marschner’s Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants”. 3rd edition. Academic Press.
Maulida, D.P. (2016). Pengaruh jumlah buku terhadap produksi bibit ubi jalar varietas Cilembu dan varietas Ungu. Buletin Agrohorti 6, 79–87.
Muli, M.B. and Mwakina. (2016). Effect of variety and size of stem cutting on flesh root yield and yield components of sweet potato. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B 6, 175-179.
O’Sullivan, J.N., Asher, C.J., and Blamey, F.P.C. (1997). “Nutrient Disorders of Sweet Potato”. ACIAR Monograph No. 48. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
[Pusdatin] Pusat Data dan Sistem Informasi Pertanian Kementerian Pertanian. 2016. “Outlook komoditas pertanian sub sektor tanaman pangan”. Kementerian Pertanian.
Robert, O.M., Mwanga, and Oscar, B.Z. (1988). Response of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) to varying levels of shade: yield and yield components. Phillippines Journal of Crop Science 13, 133-139.
Saleh, N., Rahayuningsih, S.A., and Widodo, Y. (2008). Profil dan peluang pengembangan ubi jalar untuk mendukung ketahanan pangan dan agroindustri. Buletin Palawija 15, 21-30.
Sitompul, S.M. and Guritno, B. (1995). “Analisis Pertumbuhan Tanaman”. Gadjah Mada University Press.
Stathers, T., Benjamin, M., Katcher, H., Blakenship, J., and Low, J. (2013). Everything you ever wanted to know about sweet potato In “Topic 2 - Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato and Nutrition”. Training of Trainer Manual. International Potato Center. Kenya.
Stathers, T., Low, J., Mwanga, R., Carey, T., McEwan, M., David, S., Gibson, R., Namanda, S., Malinga, J., and Ackatia-Armah, R. (2018). Everything you ever wanted to know about sweet potato In “Topic 5- Sweet Potato Seed System: Reaching Agents of Change”. Training of Trainer Manual. International Potato Center. Lima, Peru.
Wahyuni, T.S. (2011). Kajian berbagai ukuran bobot umbi terhadap keragaan bibit dan hasil ubi jalar (Ipomoea batatas L.). In “Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hasil Penelitian Tanaman Aneka Kacang dan Umbi” (A. Widjono, Hermanto, N. Nugrahaeni, A.A. Rahmiana, Suharsono, F. Rozi, E. Ginting, A. Taufiq, A. Harsono, Prayogo, eds.) pp 653-663. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan. Malang.
Wahyuni, T.S. (2016). “Penyiapan Bahan Perbanyakan Tanaman Ubi Jalar yang Baik. https://balitkabi.litbang.pertanian.go.id/infotek/penyiapan-bahan-perbanyakan tanamanubijalar-yang-baik/ [September 7, 2019].
Published
2020-10-15