Maximizing Seed Quality and Seed Yield of Bread Wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) Through Agronomic Management in Amhara Region, Northwestern Ethiopia

  • Bitwoded Derebe Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box. 527, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
  • Alemayehu Assefa Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box. 527, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
  • Alemu Abate Bahir-Dar university, Zenzelma Campus P. O. Box. 5501, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  • Tilaye Anbes Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box. 527, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
Keywords: physical purity, seedling vigor index, standard germination

Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the optimum seed rate and row spacing on Kekeba bread wheat seed yield and quality performance at Adet and Wonberema, Ethiopia. The study consists of field experiments that were conducted at Adet Research Center and Wonberema farmer’s field during the 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons, and laboratory experiments at the Seed Science Laboratory at Adet Research Centre. A factorial combination of eight seed rates (75, 100,125, 150, 175, 200, 225, and 250 kg.ha-1) and two-row spacing (20 cm and 30 cm) was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications, and laboratory experiment in a complete randomized design with four replications. The results showed that the interaction effect of seed rate and row spacing was significantly (P<0.05) affected seed yield but had non-significant (P>0.05) on physical quality, physiological, and seedling vigor. Seed rate and row spacing had a significant (P<0.05) effect on standard germination, speed of germination, vigor index-I, and vigor index-II, but a pure seed was not significantly affected by the main effects and interaction. Based on the economic analysis at Adet, the maximum seed yield (4.4 t.ha-1) was obtained from a seed rate of 125 kg.ha-1 with 20 cm row spacing, and at Wonberema the maximum seed yield (3.26 or 3.17 t.ha-1) were obtained from a seed rate of 150 or 125 kg.ha-1 with 30 cm row spacing. Therefore, a seed rate of 125 kg.ha-1 with 20 cm row spacing was recommended at Adet, and at Wonberema seed rates of 150 and 125 kg.ha-1 with 30 cm row spacing was recommended for high seed yield and quality seed production as the 1st and the 2nd options, respectively.

References

Alemayehu, Z., R.Ensermu, B., Yaie, B., Girma, G.Taye, and Hassena, M. (1999). Farmer’s Feedback on the status of released bread wheat varieties in Chilalo awaraja, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia, 106-113. In Tenth regional wheat workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Agriculture, 14-18 September 1998, University of Stellenbosch South Africa. CIMMYT, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Assefa, W., Yemane, N., and Dawit, H. (2015). Planting density, and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization effect on different bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes in Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. World Science Research Journal 3, 20-28.
Ayaz, S., Shah, P., Sharif, H.M., and Ali, I. (1999). Yield, yield components and other important agronomic traits of wheat as affected by seed rate and planting geometry. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 15, 255-262.
Ayoub, M., Guertin, S., Lussier, S., and Smith, D.L. (1994). Timing and levels of nitrogen fertility effects on spring wheat. Crop Science 34, 748-750.
Basra, A., S. (2002). “Seed Quality, Basic Mechanisms, and Agricultural Implications” Daryaganj, New Delhi, India.
Beavis, C.H.S, and Harty, R.L. (1999). Seed quality assurance, producing high-quality seed. Pp. 289-291. In “Forage Seed Production, Tropical and Sub-Tropical Species” (D.S. Loch and J.E. Ferguson, eds) J.E. CABI publishing. UK.
CIMMYT (International Maize and wheat improvement center). (1988). “From Agronomic Data to Farmer Recommendations: An Economics Training Manual”. Revised edition. Mexico.
CSA (Central Statistical Authority) (2019/20). Report on area and production of major crops In “The Republic of Ethiopia Agricultural Sample Survey Statistical Bulletin”. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Essam, A. and El-Lattief, A. (2014). Determining the optimization seeding rate for improved productivity of wheat under Southern Egypt conditions. International Journal of Agroecology and Agricultural Research 4, 47-57.
Gastel, A.J., Van, G., Bishaw, Z., and Gregg B.R. (2002). Wheat seed production. In “Bread Wheat” (B.C. Curtis, S. Rajaram, H.G. Macpherson, eds.). Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Rome, Italy.
Geleta, T. (2017). Seed rate and sowing method effects on seed quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in Horo District, Western Ethiopia. Malaysian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 4, 117-128.
Getachew, F. (2004). “Soil Characterization and Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Response to N and P Fertilization on Nitisols at Ayehu Research Substation in Northwestern Ethiopia”. [Thesis]. School of Graduate Studies, Alemaya University. 71p.
Gore, S. V., Patil, R. B., and Wankhade, G. R. (1997). Effect of maturity period and harvesting time on seed quality in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merill) cultivars. Seed Research 25, 45-49.
Hamid, E. F., H. J., Bakht, A.W., Shah, and Shad, A.A. (2002). Effect of different planting dates, seed rates, and nitrogen levels on wheat. Asian Journal of Plant Science 1, 502-506.
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) (1976). International rules for seed testing. Seed Science and Technology 4, 51-77.
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) (2003). “International Rules for Seed Testing”. The International Seed Testing Association.
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) (2014). International rules for seed testing. Zürichstr 50, CH-8303 Bassersdorf, Switzerland.
Jan, A., Hamid, I., and Muhammad, T.J. (2000). Yield and yield components of wheat as influenced by seeding rates and sowing dates. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 3, 323-325.
Maguire, J.D. (1962). Speed of germination aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science 2, 176-177.
Matlon, P., and Minot, N. (2007). Seed development programs in sub-Saharan Africa: A review of experiences.
Mehrvar, M.R., and Asadi, H. (2006). Agronomical and economical assessment of planting methods and seeding rates in irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Agronomy 5, 626-633.
Minale, L., Alemayehu, A., Tilahun, T., Abreham, M. (2006). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on the yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in major wheat-growing areas of northwestern Ethiopia. In ‘’Proceedings of the 1st Annual Regional Conference on Completed Crop Research Activities’’ pp. 84–90. Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia,.
Mugonozza, S., G.T. (2001). “Seed System in Agriculture”. International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas. ICARDA.
Nizamani, G.S., Tunio, S., Buriro, U. A., and Keerio, M. I. (2014). Influence of different seed rates on yield contributing traits in wheat varieties. Journal of Plant Sciences 2, 232-236.
Oleksiak, T. (1998). Wplyw kwalifikowanego materialu siewnego na plonowanie zboz [Influence of certified seeds on cereal yields]. Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Akilimatyzacji Roslin 208, 3–9.
Peter, J., Cerny, V., and Huska, L. (1988). “Development in Crop Science (13): Yield Formation in the Main Field Crops. Elsevier Science, New York, USA. 336 p.
QSAE (Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia). (2012). “Hybrid Maize Seed- Specification”. Ethiopian Standards ES 420. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
QSAE (Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia). (2000). “The Minimum Requirement for Wheat Seed Certification ES 414”. www.ethiostandards.org [January 10, 2022].
Reddy, Y., T. N., and Khan, M. M. (2001). Effect of osmo-priming on germination, seedling growth, and vigor of khirni (Mimusops hexandra) seeds. Seed Research New Delhi 29, 24-27.
Tekrony, D.M., and Egli, D.B. (1991). Relationship of seed vigor to crop yield. Crop Science, 31, 816-822. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1991.0011183X003100030054x
Tripp, R., Louwaars, N. P., van der Burg, W. J., Virk, D. S., and Witcombe, J. R (1997). “Alternatives for Seed Regulatory Reform: An Analysis of Variety Testing, Variety Regulation, and Seed Quality Control”. Agricultural Research and Extension Network. Network Paper No. 69. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
Vanangamudi, K., Natarajan, N., Bharathi, A., Umarani, R., Natarajan, K., and Saravanan, T. (2006). “Advances in Seed Science and Technology”. 21p.
Vieira, R.D., Paiva-Aguero, J.A., Perrin, D., and Bittencourt, S. (1999). Correlation of electrical conductivity and other vigor tests with field emergence of soybean seedlings. Seed Science. and Technology 27, 67-75.
White, J.W., Tanner, D.G., and Corbett, J.D. (2001). “An Agro-Climatological Characterization of Bread Wheat Production Areas in Ethiopia”. NRG-GIS Series 01-01. CIMMYT, Mexico.
Zecevic, V., Jelena, B., Desimir, K., and Danica, M. (2014). Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat." Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 74, 23-28.
Zewude, B. (2004). “Wheat and Barley Seed Systems in Ethiopia and Syria”. [Thesis]. Wageningen University.
Zhang, J., Dong, S., Dai, X., Wu, T., Wang, X., Bai, H., and He, M. (2016). The combined effect of plant density and nitrogen input on grain yield, nitrogen uptake, and utilization of winter wheat. Vegetos Journal 29, 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2229-4473.2016
Published
2022-06-27