Mechanism and Persistence Dormancy of Ground Cherry Seeds (Physalis peruviana L.) at Different Maturity Stages
Ground cherry (Physalis peruviana) seeds have a period of dormancy after ripening. A study was conducted to understand the mechanism of dormancy, the duration of after ripening persistence, and to determine the effective methods to break dormancy. The study was conducted in an experimental field at Ciwidey, West Java, Indonesia, and the Seed Testing Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, IPB University, in February to November 2020. The first study examined the effects of the storage temperatures, i.e. 20 ±2 oC and 25 ± 2oC, and the seed maturity stages, i.e. 49 days after anthesis (DAA), 58 DAA and 62 DAA. Several methods to break seed dormancy were tested, i.e. soaking seeds for 24 hours in distilled water, in 0.5% or 1% KNO3 and, 50 ppm GA3. The results showed that the seed dormancy was broken at 7 weeks after treatment, indicated by seed germination of >80%. The ABA levels of the seeds declined from week 0 to week 11, and the seed ABA and GA reached a balance from week 7 to week 11. Seeds treated with KNO3 or distilled water break dormancy after 8 weeks. The most effective treatment to break seed dormancy is the use of exogenous hormone GA3 at 50 ppm, with seed germination of >80% at week 5.
Evolution of Dormancy and Germination”. 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
Bewley, J, D., Bradford, K, J., Henk W, M., Hilhorst, and Nonogaki, H. (2013). “Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy”. 3rd edition. Springer, Heidelberg Dordrecht, London.
Brar, R., Gupta, R.C., (2017). Phytochemical analysis of two cytotypes (2x and 4x) of Physalis angulate, an important medicinal plant collected from Rajasthan. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 3,1-7.
Cembrowska-Lech, D., Koprowski, M., and Kępczyn’ski, J. (2015). Germination induction of dormant Avena fatua caryopses by KAR1 and GA3 involving the control of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase) both in the embryo and the aleurone layers. Journal of Plant Physiology 176, 169-179.
Considine, M, J., and Considine, J, A. (2016) On the language and physiology of dormancy and quiescence in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 67, 3189-203.
Cutti, L., Maris, S, K. (2016). Treatment of Solanum torvum seeds improves germination in a batch-dependent manner. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical 46, 464-469.
Diniz, F, O., Chamma, L, and Novembre A., D., L., C. (2020). Germination of Physalis peruviana L. seeds under varying conditions of temperature, light, and substrate. Revista Ciência Agronômica 51,1-9
Farooq, S., Onen, H., Ozaslan, C., Ahmed M. El-Shehawi, and Elseehy, M. M. (2021). Characteristics and methods to release seed dormancy of two ground cherry (Physalis) species. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 25, 1-10.
Garzón-Martínez, G. A., Osorio-Guarín, J. A., Delgadillo-Durán, P., Mayorga, F.,
Enciso-Rodríguez, F. E., Landsman, D., Mariño-Ramírez, L., and Barrero, L. S. (2015). Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers. Plant Gene 4, 29–37.
Hayati, N, E., Sukprakarn, S., and Juntakool, S. (2005). Seed germination enhancement in Solanum stramonifolium and Solanum torvum. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science) 39, 368-376.
Ilyas, S., and Darni, W, T. (2007). Persistence and breaking seed dormancy of land rice cultivars. Agrista 11, 92-101.
[ISTA] International Seed Testing Association. (2018). “International Rules for Seed
Testing”. Basserdorf, Switzerland
Koprivova, A., and Kopriva, S. (2016). Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation. Plant Molecular Biology 91, 617-627
Kucera, B, Cohn M., A, and Leubner-Metzger, G. (2005). Plant hormone interactions during seed dormancy release and germination. Seed Science Research 15, 281–307.
Ljung, K., Sandberg, G., and Moritz, T. (2010). Methods of plant hormone analysis. In ‘Plant Hormones’ (P. J., Davies, ed.). 3rd edition. Springer. Dordrecht.
López-Valdez, A. P, Alvarado-Vazquaez, M. A, Diaz-Jimenez, L., and Rocha-Estrada, A. (2020). Effect of temperature and storage time on the concentration of some
pythohormones and germination of piquin chili pepper seeds Capsicum
annum var Glabriusculum (dunal) Heiser and Pickersgill. Polibotanica 50, 83-
Neto, F. J. D. Dlanhol, S. J, Junior, A.P., Rodrigues, J., D, and Ono, E., O. (2017). Effect of plant growth hormone regulators on eggplant seed germination and seedling growth. Australian Journal of Crop Science 11,1277-1282
Nosratti, I., Heidari, H., Muhammadi, G., and Saeidi, M. (2016). Germination and emergence characteristics of annual ground cherry (Physalis divaricata). Jordan Journal of Biological Science 9, 131-138.
Nunes, A. L., Sossmeier, S., Gotz, A.P., and Bispo N. B., (2018). Germination eco-physiology and emergence of Physalis peruviana seedling. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 8, 352-359.
Ozaslan, C., Shahid, F., Onen, H., Ozcan, S., Bukun, B., and Guna, H. (2017). Germination biology of two invasive Physalis species and implications for their management in arid and semi-arid regions. Nature Science Report 7,1-7.
Santiago, W, R., Gama, J, N, S., Torres, S, B., and Bacchetta, G. (2019). Physiological maturity of Physalis angulata L. seeds. Revista Ciência Agronômica 50, 431-438.
Saputra, J., Amir, R, A., Mumin, N., and Sutariati, G, A, K. (2020). Persistency and breaking of seed dormancy in local chili pepper using techniques by seed bio-invigoration. Agroteknologi Tropika 8, 391-400
Torres-González, A, M. (2019). Seed dormancy and germination in tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) and lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.). Revista Colombiana De Ciencias Hortícolas 13, 336-347.
Xia, Q, Ponnaiah, M., Thanikathansubramanian, K., Corbineau, F., Baily, C., Nambara,
E., Meimoun, P., and Bouteau, H. E. (2019). Re-localization of hormone effector is associated with dormancy alleviation by temperature and after ripening in
sunflower seeds. Nature Science Report 9,1-12.
Yamaguchi, S. (2008). Gibberellin metabolism and it’s regulation. Annual Review of
Plant Biology 59, 225-251.
Yogeesha, H., S., Upreti, K. K, Padmini, K., Bhanuprakash, K., and Murti, G. S. R. (2006). Mechanism of seed dormancy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Seed Science and Technology 34, 319-325.
Wu, H., Stanton, R., and Lemerle, D. (2019). Seed fecundity, persistence, and germination biology of prairie groundcherry (Physalis hederifolia) in Australia. Weed Science 1, 77-82.
All publications by Journal of Tropical Crop Science is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.