The Interaction between Endophytic Actinomycetes and Rhizobium in Leguminous Plants

  • Asmiaty Sahur Hasanuddin University

Abstract

Biological N2 fixation represents the major source of N input in many agricultural soils including those in arid regions where little artificial fertilizer is applied. The major N2-fixing systems in agriculture are the symbiotic systems, where bacteria such as rhizobia interact with legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen which plays a significant role in improving the fertility and productivity of low-N soils. The symbiotic association of legume-rhizobium is initiated by the colonization of the rhizosphere by the rhizobia and subsequent attachment to the root hairs of the host plant. Furthermore, the host will produce flavonoids, such as luteolin in alfalfa and diazedin in soybean, which interact with nod protein in the rhizobia. Moreover, this process then elicits the expression of a cluster of nodulation genes such as nod, nol, and noe in the rhizobia. The interaction is potentially of great importance to the health and growth in nature of this nodulating legume.

The interaction between endophytic Actinomycetes and rhizobia in leguminous plants is one way to improve the capability of leguminous plants to fix atmospheric nitrogen in plant roots and contribute to the plants nutrition. From other studies, we know that certain types of Actinomycetes, for example Streptomyces, interact with peas to form healthy roots as an effective site to form nodules and improve biological nitrogen fixation.  Knowledge about this activity against fungal pathogens might lead to finding biocontrol agents for use in sustainable agricultural practices.

Root-colonizing soil borne Actinomycetes might influence root nodulation in leguminous plants by increasing root nodulation frequency, possibly at the sites of infection by Rhizobium spp.  Actinomycetes also colonize and sporulate within the surface cell layers of the nodules. This colonization leads to an increase in the average size of the nodules that form and improves the vigor of the bacteroids which generate the red color within the nodules by enhancing nodular assimilation of iron and possibly other soil nutrients.

 

Keywords: symbiotic, biological, nitrogen, molecular interaction

Author Biography

Asmiaty Sahur, Hasanuddin University
Department of Agronomy , Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University Indonesia

References

Arshad, M. and Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. (1991). Microbe production of plant hormones. Plant and Soil 133, 1-8.

Battacharyya, P.N. and Jha, D.K. 2012. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): the emergence in agriculture. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 28, 1327-1350.

Benson, D.R. and Silvester, W.B. (1993). Biology of Frankia strains, Actinomycetes symbionts of actinorhizal plants. Microbiology 57, 293–319.

Boddey, R.B., de Oliveira O. C., Urquiaga S., Reis, V. M., de Olivares, F. L., Baldani V. L. D., and Döbereiner, J. (1995). Biological nitrogen fixation associated with sugar cane and rice: contributions and prospects for improvement. Plant and Soil 174, 195–209.

Boddey R. M., Giller, K. E., Cadisch, G., Alves, B. J. R., and Urquiaga S. (1998). Contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to tropical agriculture: actual and potential. In “Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the 21st Century” (C. Elmerich, A. Kondorosi and W E Newton, eds). pp. 599-604. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Bladergroen, M. R. and Spaink, H. P. (1998). Genes and signals molecules involved in the rhizobia-leguminoseae symbiosis. Current Opinions in Plant Biology 1, 353-59.

Boddey R.M., Urquiaga, S., Alves, B. J. R., and Reis, V. (2003). Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: present knowledge and future applications. Plant and Soil 252, 139-149.

Bolan, N.S., M.J. Hedley, and White, R.E. (1991). Processes of soil acidification during Nitrogen cycling with emphasis on legume based pastures. Plant and Soil 134, 53-63.

Bull, C.T., Weller, D.M., and Thomashow, L.S. (1991). Relationship between root colonization and suppression of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici by Pseudomonas fluorescence strain 2-79. Phytopathology 81, 954-959.

Cohn J., Bradley, D. R., and Stacey G. (1998). Legume nodule morphogenesis. Trends in Plant Science 3,105-110.

Dakora, F.D. (1995). Plant flavonoids: biological molecules for useful exploitation. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22, 7-9.

Diagne, N., Arumugam, K., Ngom, M., Nambiar-Veetil, M., Franche, C., Narayanan, K. K., and Laplaze, L. (2013). Use of Frankia and Actinorhizal Plants for Degraded Lands Reclamation. BioMed Research International 2013, 1-9. http://doi.org/10.1155/2013/948258

Franche, C., Laplaze, L., Duhoux, E., Bogusz, D. (1998). Actinorhizal symbioses: recent advances in plant molecular and genetic transformation studies. Critical Review in Plant Sciences 17, 1-28.

Giller, K.E. and Wilson, K.J. (1991). “Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems” pp 167-237. CAB International, Wallingford, England.

Gholami, A., Shahsavani, S., Nezarat, S. (2009). The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on germination, seedling growth and yield of maize. International Journal of Biological Life Sciences 1, 3540-3583.

Glick, B.R., Karaturovic, D.M., and Newell, P. C. (1995). A novel procedure for rapid isolation of plant growth promoting pseudomonads. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41, 533-536.

Handelsman, J. and Stabb, E.V. (1996). Bio control of soil borne plant pathogen. American Society of Plant Physiologists 8, 1855-1859.

Hayashi, S., Reid, D.E., Lorenc, M.T., Stiller, J., Edwards, D., Gresshoff, P.M., Ferguson, B.J. 2012. Transient nod factor-dependent gene expression in the nodulation-competent zone of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) roots. Plant Biotechnology Journal 10, 995-1010. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2012.00729.x.

Helyar, K.R. (1976). Nitrogen cycling and acidification. Journal Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 42, 217-222.

Huss-Danell, K. (1997). Actinorhizal symbioses and their N fixation. New Phytologist 136, 375-405.

Jensen, E.S. and Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. (2003). How can increased use of biological N2 fixation in agriculture benefit the environment? Plant and Soil 252, 177-186.

Johnsson, L., Hökeberg, M., and Gerhardson, B. (1998). Performance of the Pseudomonas chlororaphis biocontrol agent MA 342 against seed-borne diseases in field experiments. European Journal of Plant Pathology 104, 701-711.

Kennedy, I.R., L.L Pereg-Gerk, C., Wood, R., Deaker, K. G., and Karupitiya, S. (1997). Biological nitrogen fixation in non-leguminous field crops: facilitating the evolution of an effective association between Azospirilium and wheat. Plant Sciences 194, 65-79.

Kloepper, J.W. and Schroth, M.N. (1978). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on radishes. In “Proceeding of the 4th International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria 2”, pp 879–882. Station de Pathologie Vegetale et Phytobacteriologie, INRA, Angers, France.

Kloepper, J.W., Leong J., Teintze, M. and Shroth, M.N. (1980). Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Nature 286, 885.

Kraus, M., Fusseler, A., and Beck, E. (1987). In situ determination of the phosphate gradient around a root by radio autography of frozen soil sections. Plant Soil 97, 407-418.

Ladha, J.K., Kamdu, D.K., Van Coppenolle, A. M.G., People, M.B., Canangal, V.R., Dart, P.J. (1996). Legume productivity and soil nitrogen dynamics in lowland rice-based cropping system. Soil Science Society American Journal 60,183-192.

Ledgard, S. F. (2001). Nitrogen cycling in low input legume-based agriculture, with emphasis on legume/grass pastures. Plant and Soil 228, 43-59.

Leroug P., Roche P., Faucher C., Maillet F., Prome, J.C., and Denarie J. (1990). Symbiotic host specificity of Rhizobium melilotiis determined by a sulphate and acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide. Nature 344, 781-784.

Lhuissier, F.G.P., de Ruijter, N.C.A., Sieberer, B.J., Esseling, J.J., and Emons, A.M.C. (2001). Time course of cell biological events evoked in legume root hairs by Rhizobium nod factors: state of the art. Annual Botany 87, 289-302.

Parke, J.L. (1991). Root colonization by indigenous and introduced microorganisms. In “The Rhizosphere and Plant Growth” (D.L. Keister and P.B. Cregan, eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Philippot, L., Raaijmakers, J.M., Lemanceau, P., Van Der Putten, W.H. (2013).

Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere. Nature Reviews Microbiology 11, 789 - 799

Prome, J. C., Denarie, J., and Truchet, G. (1998). Acylated chito oligomers are molecular signals that mediate the symbiotic interactions between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and their host plants. Pure and Application Chemistry 70, 55-60.

Scher, F.M. and Baker, R. (1982). Effect of pseudomonas putida and a synthetic iron chelator wilt pathogens. Phytopathology 72, 1567-1573.

Shahzad, S.M., Khalid, A., Arshad, M., and Rahman, K.U. (2010). Screening rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminizes for growth promotion of chickpea seedling axenic conditions. Soil and Environment 29, 38-46.

Shanahan, P., O’ Sullivan, D.J., Simpsom, P., Glennon, J.D., and O’Gara, F. (1992). Isolation of 2.4-diacetylphlonaglucinol, a fluorescent pseudomad and investigation of physiological parameters influencing its production. Applied Environment and Microbiology 58, 353-358.

Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S., Morgan, D.R., Swensen, M.R., Mullin, B.C. (1995). Chloroplast gene sequence data suggest a single origin of the predisposition for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in angiosperm. Proceeding National Academy of Science 92, 2647 – 2651.

Sprent, J.I. and Sprent, P. (1990). “Nitrogen Fixing Organism; Pure and Applied Aspects”. 256 pp. Chapman and Hall, London.

Wakelin, S. A. and Ryder, M. H. (2004). Plant growth-promoting inoculants in Australian Agriculture. https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/ cm/abstracts/3/1/2004-0301-01-RV?access=0&view=pdf. [November 2015]

Wall, L.G. (2000). The actinorhizal symbiosis. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 19,167-182.

Weller, D.M. (1983). Colonization of wheat roots by a fluorescent Pseudomonad suppressive to take-all. Phytopathology 73, 1548-1553.

Viprey, V., Perret, X., Broughton, W.J. (2000). Host-plant invasion by rhizobia. Subcellular Biochemistry 33, 437-456.

Published
2015-10-01