Hybrid Vigour Study of Yield and Yield Related Characters on Limmu Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Genotypes at South-Western Ethiopia

  • Gemechu Asefa AEthiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Jimma Agricultural Research Center, Jimma, Ethiopia
  • Hussein Mohammed BHawassa University College of Agriculture, School of Plant and Horticultural Sciences, Hawassa, Ethiopia
  • Ashenafi Ayano CEthiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Bako National Maize Research Center, Bako, Ethiopia
Keywords: coffee, heterobeltiosis, heterosis, vigor


Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide and has a great economic impact in many countries including Ethiopia. Hybrid vigor (heterosis) breeding can enhance productivity of coffee. Hybrid vigor study was conducted on 5 x 5 half-diallel mating involving 17coffee genotypes (5 parents, 10 F1 hybrids and two checks) for yield and its related traits in 2018. The study locations include Jimma, Agaro and Gera research centers of south-western Ethiopia using randomized completely block design with three replications. There are significant differences among 17 genotypes and 15 diallel genotypes (checks excluded) for all traits; the crosses showed significant and positive average heterosis (mid parent) and heterobeltiosis (better parent) for all traits. Crosses showed significant variation in the expression of standard heterosis (SH) and useful heterosis (UH) for fruit length (FL), fruit width (FW), bean length (BL), bean width (BW), bean thickness(BT), and hundred bean weight (HBW) across locations. Heterobeltiosis ranged from -9.06 to 88.79% and -17.81 to 67.98% for yield at Jimma and Gera, respectively. Mean SH and UH was positive and between 5 and 10% for BL and BT and <5% for all fruit characters and BT across locations. Mean of SH and UH was 14.62% and 11.82%, respectively for HBW. Crosses P4 x P5, P1 x P5 and P2 x P5 increased yield by 25.13% (637.75 kg), 14.05% (356.64 kg) and 5.78% (146.59 kg) over commercial pure line variety across three locations, respectively. Based on heterosis and mean performance hybrids P4 x P5, P1 x P5, P3 x P5, and P1 x P2 found as promising hybrids for yield and bean characters. Thus, these hybrids should be advanced in the next breeding program and tested through incorporating other traits.


Abu, T. (2013). “Coffee Report, Assessments of Commodity and Trade Issues”. Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) Report 1302. African Coffee Renaissance Proceedings (ACRP), Nairobi, Kenya, October 14-15, 2015.
Ameha, M. and Belachew, B. (1983). Heterosis in crosses of indigenous coffee (Coffea arabica L.) selected for yield and resistance to coffee berry disease II – the first three years. Ethiopian Journal Agricultural Science 3, 13-21.
Asefa, G. (2018). “Combining Ability and Heterosis of Yield, Yield Related and Growth Characters in Limmu Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Landraces in South-western Ethiopia”. [Thesis]. 154pp.
Ayano, A. (2013). “Heterosis and Combining Ability for Morphological, Yield and Quality Characters in Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Hybrids”. [Thesis]. 92pp.
Ayano, A., Alamerew, S., and Tesfaye, A. ( 2015). Heterosis and combining ability of fruit and bean characters in Ethiopian origin coffee (Coffea arabica L.) hybrids. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 5, 203-213.
Beksisa, L., Alamerew, S., Ayano, A., and Daba G. (2017) . Genotype × environment interaction and yield stability of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genotypes. African Journal of Agricultural Research 13, 210-219. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2017.12788
Beksisa, L., and Ayano A. (2016). Multivariate analysis study of limmu coffee (Coffea arabica L.) accessions in south-western Ethiopia. Agricultural science Research Journal 6, 166 - 174
Belachew, B. (2001). “Arabica Coffee Breeding for Yield and Resistance to Coffee Berry Disease“. [Thesis]. 271pp. University of London, Imperial College, Wye, UK.
Benti, T. (2017). Progress in arabica coffee breeding in Ethiopia: achievements, challenges and prospects. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research 33, 15-25.
Bing, C., Agnelo, F., Heather, E., Smyth, and Henry, J. (2016). Influence of genotype and environment on coffee quality Review. Trends in Food Science & Technology 57, 20-30. DOI://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.09.003
CSA (Central Statistics Agency). (2020). ''Agricultural Sample Survey 2019/20 Report on Area and Production of Major. Statistical Bulletin 584, 1-137 April, 2020, Addis Ababa.
Davis, A.P. (2011). Psilanthus mannii, the type species of Psilanthus, transferred to coffea. Nordic Journal of Botany 29, 471–472.
Davis, A.P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D.M. and Stoffelen, P. (2006). An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 15: 465–512.
Eshetu, D., Teame, G. and Girma, A. (1999). Significance of minor diseases of Coffea arabica L. In Ethiopia In “Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of Coffee Berry Disease In Ethiopia” pp. 58-65.
FAS (Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA) (2018). Coffee: World Markets and Trade. http://www.fas.usda.gov/data/coffee-world-markets-and-trade. [June 1, 2018.]
ICGN (International Coffee Genomics Network). (2017). “Report 10th Coffee Genomics Workshop”. XXV Plant and Animal Genome (PAG) Meeting San Diego, California January 14-18, 2017.
International Coffee Organization (ICO). (2016). “Historical Data on the Global Coffee Trade”. http://www.ico.org/new historical.asp (2016). [June 1, 2018].
International Coffee Organization (ICO). (2014). “Fourth International World Coffee Conference”. 7-14 March 2014. London, United Kingdom. http://dev. ico.org/documents/cy2013-14/wcc-Ethiopia-presentation.pdf. [June 1, 2018].
International plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). (1996). “Descriptors for Coffee (Coffea spp and Psilanthus spp)”. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.
Kitila, O., Alamerew, S., Kufa T., and Garedew, W. (2011). Genetic diversity analysis of Limmu coffee (Coffea arabica L.) collection using quantitative traits in Ethiopia. International journal of Agricultural Research 6, 470-481. DOI: 10.3923/ ijar.2011.470.481. https://www. researchgate.net/publication/273382927
Kufa, T. (2013). “Status of Arabica Coffee Germplasm in Ethiopia”. Third African Coffee Sustainability Forum. Munyono, Uganda. February 2013.
Leroy, T., Ribeyre, F., Bertrand, B., Charmetant, P. and Dufour, M. (2006). Genetics of coffee quality. Brazil Journal of Plant Physiology 18, 229-242.
Mohammed, W. (2004). “Heterosis and Combining Ability Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits in Coffee (Coffea arabia L.)”. [Thesis]. Alemaya University of Agriculture, Alemaya, Ethiopia.
Muschler, R. G. (2001). Shade improves coffee quality in a sub-optimal coffee-zone of Costa Rica. Agroforestry Systems 51, 131-139.
Musoli, P., Cubry, P. Aluka, P., Billot, C., Dufour, M., De Bellis, F., Pot, D., Bieysse, D., Charrier A., and Leroy T. (2009). Genetic differentiation of wild and cultivated populations: diversity of Coffea canephora Pierre in Uganda. Genome 52, 634-646.
Nure, D. (2008). ''Coffee Quality Inspection and Auction Center. In “Coffee Diversity and Knowledge, Four Decades of Coffee Research and Development in Ethiopia”. Proceedings of National Workshop (G. Adugna, B. Belachew, T. Shimber, E. Taye and T. Kufa, eds.)'. pp. 317-328. 14-17 August 2007, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Pathak, R.S and Parkash K. (1976). Study of heterosis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 47, 45-49.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System) 2012. version 9.3, SAS Institute, Cary, North Caroline, USA
Tefera F. (2017). “Variability and Genotype by Environment Interaction for Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Hybrids in southwestern Ethiopia”. [Thesis]. College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University. 255p.
Weldemichael, G., Alamerew, S. and Kufa, T. (2017). Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for quantitative traits in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) accessions in Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research 12, 1824-1831. DOI:- 10.5897/AJAR2016.12059.
Woldetsadik W. and Kebede K. (2000). Coffee production systems in Ethiopia In “Proceedings of the Workshop on Control of Coffee Berry Disease in Ethiopia” pp 99-106. Addis Ababa, 13–15 August 1999. EARO, Addis Ababa.