Sulfonylurea Herbicide-Resistant Study on Broadleaf Weeds in The Lowland Rice Production Center in West Java, Indonesia

  • Fitrawaty Orista Evar IPB UniversitIPB University (Bogor Agricultural University), Graduate School, Study Program of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor 16680, Indonesiay (Bogor Agricultural University), Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • Dwi Guntoro IPB University (Bogor Agricultural University), Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • M. A. Chozin IPB University (Bogor Agricultural University), Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • M. Yuli Irianto Provivi Pheromones Indonesia, Jakarta 10630, Indonesia
Keywords: effective dose, methyl metsulfuron, mortality, penoxulam


Most rice growers in Indonesia use herbicides for weed control. However, intensive use of herbicides can lead to the weeds to become resistant to the chemicals. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance status of weeds Ludwigia octovalvis, Sphenoclea zeylanica, Monochoria vaginalis in lowland rice in West Java, Indonesia. The study was started by planting three species of weeds, L. octovalvis, S. zeylanica, M. vaginalis, which were then treated with metsulfuron-methyl and penoxsulam herbicides. The study was conducted from January to May 2020 at Cikabayan Experimental Greenhouse, IPB University. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The first factor was the origin of weeds, exposed weeds (Karawang and Subang), and not exposed to herbicides (Bogor); the second factor was the rates of the herbicide, i.e., 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 g. ha-1 for  metsulfuron- methyl, and 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200 ml.ha-1 for penoxsulam. The results showed that based on the resistance ratio, S. zeylanica and M. vaginalis from Karawang and Subang, and L. octovalvis from Subang, indicated a low resistance to metsulfuron-methyl, L. octovalvis from Karawang was still sensitive to metsulfuron-methyl. L. octovalvis, S. zeylanica, and M. vaginalis from Karawang and Subang were still sensitive to penoxsulam herbicides. This information would be useful to develop a strategy of weed management for important food crops.


Ahmad-Hamdani, M.S., Owen, M.J., Yu, Q., and Powles. S.B. (2012). Accase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant Avena spp. Populations from the western Australian grain belt. Weed Technology 26, 130–136.
Anderson WP (2002). “Weed Science: Principles” (3rd edition). West Publishing Co., St. Paul, MN 388.
[Drijen PSP] Direktorat Jenderal Prasarana dan Sarana Pertanian. (2019). “Rekap izin pestisida berdasarkan bahan aktif”. [June 12, 2019].
Baltazar, A.M. (2017). Herbicide-resistant weeds in the Philippines: Status and resistance mechanisms. Weed Biology and Management 17, 57–67.
Baucom, R.S. (2019). Evolutionary and ecological insights from herbicide-resistant weeds: what have we learned about plant adaptation, and what is left to uncover? New Phytologist 223, 68-82.
Beckie, H.J. and Tardif, F.J. (2012). Herbicide cross-resistance in weeds. Crop Protection 35, 15-28.
Burgos, N.R. (2015). Whole-plant and seed bioassays for resistance confirmation. Weed Science Special Issue,152–165.
Dilipkumar, M., Chuah, T.S., Goh, S.S. and Sahid, I. (2020). Weed management issues, challenges, and opportunities in Malaysia. Crop Protection 34, 1-9.
Dong, H., Huang, Y. and Wang, K. (2021). The development of herbicide resistance crop plants using crispr/cas9-mediated gene editing. Genes (Basel) 12, 912.
Fang, J., Liu, T., Zhang, Y., Li, J. and Dong L. (2019). Target site–based penoxsulam resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) from China. Weed Science 67, 281 – 287.
Green, J.M. and Owen, M.D.K. (2011). Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59, 5819–5829.
Guntoro, D. and Fitri, T.Y. (2013). Aktivitas herbisida campuran bahan aktif cyhalofop-butyl dan penoxsulam terhadap beberapa jenis gulma padi sawah. Buletin Agrohorti 1, 140 – 148.
Hada, Z., Khammasi, M., Jenfaoui H., Menchari, Y., Torra, J. and Souissi, T. (2020). Field survey and resistance occurrence to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in Glebionis coronaria L. in Tunisian wheat crops. Plants 9, 1210.
Hasanuzzaman, M. (2019). effect of herbicide on soil and crop. www. effects_of_herbicides_on_soil_and_crop_plants.pdf [May 30, 2022].
Heap, I. (2018). “The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds”. http://www.wee [February 21, 2019].
Heap, I. (2020). “The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds”. http://www.weed [December 30, 2020].
Hussain, A., Ding, X., Alariqi, M., Manghwar, A., Hui, F., Li, Y., Cheng, J., Wu, C., Cao, J. and Jin, S. (2021). Herbicide resistance: another hot agronomic trait for plant genome editing. Plants 10, 621.
Jhala, A.J. and Knezevic, S.Z. (2017). Gene flow and herbicide resistance In “Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences” 2nd edition. pp. 447-448. Academic Press.
Jugulam, M and Shyam, C. (2019). Non-target-site resistance to herbicides: recent developments. Plants 8, 417.
Knezevic, S.Z., Jhala, A. and Gaines, T. (2017). Herbicide resistance and molecular aspects In “Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences” 2nd edition pp. 455-458. Academic Press.
Kraehmer, H., Jabran, K., Mennan, H. and Chauhan, B.S. (2017). Global distribution of rice weeds, a review. Crop Protection 80, 73-86.
Lubis, L.A., Purba, E. and Sipayung, R. (2012). Respons dosis biotip Eleusine indica resisten-glifosat terhadap glifosat, parakuat, dan glufosinat. Jurnal Online Agroekoteknologi 1, 109-123.
Mada, D., Duniya, N., and Adams, I.G. (2013). Effect of continuous application of herbicide on soil and environment with crop protection machinery in Southern Adamawa State. International Journal of Engineering and Science 2, 4-9.
Matzrafi, M., Gerson, O., Sibony, M., and Rubin, B. (2020). Target site resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitors in Diplotaxis erucoides and Erucaria hispanica–mechanism of resistance and response to alternative herbicides. Agronomy 10, 471.
Norsworthy, J.K., Ward, S.M., Shaw, D.R., Llewellyn, R.S., Nichols, R.L., Webster, T.M., Bradley, K.W., Frisvold, G., Powles, S.B. and Burgos, N.R. Witt, W.W., and Barret, M. (2012). Reducing the risks of herbicide resistance: best management practices and recommendations. Weed Science Special Issue, 31–62.
Pangestuning, E., Yusnaini S., Niswati A., and Buchori, H. (2017). Pengaruh sistem olah tanah dan aplikasi herbisida terhadap respirasi tanah pada lahan pertanaman jagung (Zea mays) musim tanam ketiga. Jurnal Agrotekologi Tropika 5, 113-118.
Powles, S.B. and Yu, Q. (2010). Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicides. Annual Review Plant Biology 61, 317-347.
Rachman, L.M., Hazra, F., and Anisa, R. (2020). Penilaian terhadap sifat-sifat fisika dan kimia tanah serta kualitasnya pada lahan sawah marjinal. Jurnal Tanah dan Sumberdaya Lahan 7, 225-236.
Razo, J.A.T., Zamudio, E.O., Marqueez, S.V. and Garcia, J.R.T. (2019). Ten-thousand times diluted doses of accase-inhibiting herbicides can permanently change the metabolomic fingerprint of susceptible Avena fatua L. Plants 8, 368.
Santana, F.P., Ghulamahdi, M., Lubis, I. (2020). “Respon Pertumbuhan, Fisiologi dan Produksi Dua Varietas Kedelai Terhadap Dosis Nitrogen Yang Berbeda” [Thesis]. Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Tang, W., Liu, S., Yu, X., Yang, Y., Zhou, X. and Lu, Y. (2021). The basis of tolerance mechanism to metsulfuron-methyl in Roegneria kamoji (Triticeae: Poaceae). Plants 10, 1823.
Travlos, I., de Prado, R., Chachalis, D. and Bilalis, D.J. (2020). Herbicide resistance in weeds: early detection, mechanisms, dispersal, new insights and management issues. Frontier Ecology Evolution 8, 213.
Umiyati, U., Widayat, D., Kurniadie, D. and Gumiwang. (2020). Herbisida penoksulam sebagai pengendali gulma teki dan daun lebar pada budidaya padi sawah sistem tanam pindah. Jurnal Kultivasi 19, 1412-4718.
Yang, Q., Yang, X., Zhang, Z., Wang, J., Fu, W., and Li, Y. (2021) Investigating the resistance levels and mechanisms to penoxsulam and cyhalofop-butyl in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) from Ningxia Province, China. Weed Science 69, 422–429.
Yulivi, T.A., Purba, E. and Rahmawati, N. (2014). Dose respons satu biotipe Eleusine indica resisten-parakuat terhadap parakuat, glifosat, dan ammonium glufosinat. Jurnal Online Agroekoteknologi 2, 1339- 1346.
Zarwazi, L.M., Chozin, M.A. and Guntoro, D. (2016). Potensi gangguan gulma pada tiga sistem budidaya padi sawah. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia 44, 147 – 153.