Evaluation of Source and Sink Capacity of New Cowpea Varieties

Authors

  • Faza Yasmin Saidah Agronomy and Horticulture, Graduate School, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • Heni Purnamawati Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • Iskandar Lubis Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29244/jtcs.10.1.38-45

Keywords:

cowpea varieties, pods, productivity

Abstract

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is a perennial species originating from sub-Saharan Africa. Cowpea has long been cultivated in Indonesia and is classified as a species tolerant of drought and acid soil. Cowpea shows its adaptation to acidic soil (pH = 4.83) by being able to produce 50% to 60% of the seed weight under optimum conditions. This enhances the potential of cowpea to be used and developed as one of the current food options. This research was carried out to optimise of cowpea productivity by studying the relationship between the source and sink of cowpea. This research was conducted from December 2020 to March 2021 at the Cikabayan experimental station, Bogor Agricultural University. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design. Four cowpea varieties were evaluated, “Albina”, “Arghavan”, and “Uno”. The measured parameters consisted of photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, plant growth rate, the net assimilation rate of the number of pods, pod weight, number of seeds per pod, dry seed weight, the weight of 100-seeds, and productivity. The cowpea varieties did not show significant differences in the rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, plant growth rate, and net assimilation rate. Photosynthesis rate in the three cowpea varieties ranged from 29.20 to 31.77 mol. m⁻².s⁻1 at 50% flowering, and from 17.01 to 19.79 mol.m⁻².s1 at the first harvest. The three cowpea varieties in this study showed no differences in their source-sink capacity and productivity.

References

Atmaja, I.S.F. (2020). “Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Physiology and Characteristics of Seed Filling Rate of Several Soybean Varieties”. Bogor, Bogor Agricultural Institute.
[BALITKABI] Research Institute for Legumes and Tubers. (2005). “Description of Superior Varieties of Legumes and Tubers”. Malang Research Institute for Legumes and Tubers.
[BPS] Central Bureau of Statistics. (2019). “Soybean Imports by Main Country of Origin”. http://www.bps.go.id. [ November 20, 2020].
Boukar O., Bhattacharjee R., Fatokun C., Kumar P, and Gueye, B. (2013). Cowpea In “Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement” (M. Singh, H.D. Upadhyaya, and I.S. Bisht, eds.). 1st ed. p 137–156. London, Elsevier.
Boukar, O., Fatokun, C.A., Roberts, P.A., Abberton, M., Huynh, B.L., Close, T.J., Kyai-Boahen, S., Higgins, T.J.V, and Ehlers, J.D. (2015). Cowpea In “Grain Legumes” (A.M.D. Ron, ed.). pp. 219-250. Springer. New York. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2797-5_7.
El Naim, A.M,, and Jabereldar, A.A. (2010). Effect of crop density and cultivar on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp). Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 8, 3148-3153.
Fadillah, R. (2019). “Application of Starter Fertilizer and Manure to Increase the Productivity of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata [L.] Walp)”. Bogor. Bogor Agricultural Institute.
Haliza, W. (2008). Without soy, you can still eat tempe. Agricultural Research and Development News 1,10-12.
Hardjowigeno, S. (2015). “Soil Science”. Academic Pressindo. Jakarta, ID.
Hassan, M.S, Khair, A., Haque, M.M., Azad, A.K., and Hamid, A. (2009). Genotypic variation in traditional rice varieties for chlorophyll content, SPAD value, and nitrogen use efficiency. Journal of Bangladesh Agriculture Research 34, 505-515.
Horn L.N., and Shimelis, H. (2020). Production constraints and breeding approach for cowpea improvement for drought-prone agro-ecologies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Annal Agricultural Science 65, 83–91. DOI:10.1016/j.aoas.2020.03.002.
Karsono, S. (1998). Ecology and development areas of cowpea in Indonesia. Monograph Balitkabi 3, 59-72.
Kirigia, D, Winkelmann, T., Kasili, R., and Mibus, H. (2018). Development stage, storage temperature, and storage duration influence phytonutrient content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Heliyon 6, 1–24. DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00656.
Liana, D. (2019). Determination of the optimum rate of N fertilizers with the addition of goat for the production of cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata [L.] Walp). Journal of Tropical Crop Science 2 121-128. DOI:10.29244/jtcs.6.02.
Liana, D. (2019). “Determination of the Optimum Dose of N and K Fertilizers with the Addition of Goat Manure for the Production of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata [L.] Walp)”. Bogor, Bogor Agricultural Institute.
[MOA] Ministry of Agriculture. 2021. “Largest Soybean Production Center Province in Indonesia”. https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2022/02/17/ini-provinsi-sentra-production-kedelai-terbesar-di-indonesia#: (November 25, 2022).
Ndiaga, C. (2000). Genotype x row spacing and environment interaction of cowpea in semi-arid zones. African Crop Science Journal 2, 359-367.
Pantilu, L.I., Mantiri, F.R., Song, A., and Pandiangan, D. (2012). Morphological and anatomical responses of soybean sprouts (Glycine max (L.) Merill) to different light intensities. Journal of Bioslogos 2, 79-87.
Porra R.J.W., Schafer, W., Cmiel, E., Katheder, I., and Scheer, H. (1993). Derivation of the formyl group oxygen of chlorophyll b from molecular oxygen in greening leaves of a higher plant (Zea mays). Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) Letters 323, 31-4.
Purnamawati, H, Manshuri, AG. (2015). Source and sink on peanut crops. Monograph of Balitkabi 13, 84-93.
Purnamawati, H. (2012). “Analysis of Peanut Yield Potential in Relation to Capacity and Source and Sink Activities”. [Thesis]. Bogor Agricultural University.
Rabbani, I. (2021). “Response of Fertilization and Varieties to the Production of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)”. Bogor, Bogor Agricultural University.
Rajput, A., Rajput, S.S., and Jha, G. (2017). Physiological parameters leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate of different varieties of rice grown under different planting geometries and depths in SRI. International Journal of Applied Bioscience 1, 362-367. DOI: 10.18782/2320-7051.2472.
Setyowati, M., and Sutoro. (2010). Evaluation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) germplasm in acid soil. Bulletin of Germplasm 16, 44-48.
Sheahan, C.M., (2012). “Plant Guide for Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)”. United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Cape May Plant Materials Center, Cape May, New Jersey.
Shon, T. K., Haryanto, T. A. D., and Yoshida, T. (1997). Dry matter production and utilization of solar energy in one-year-old Bupleurum falcatum. Journal Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University 41, 133-140.
Siregar, V.M.R. (2020). “Evaluation of Cowpea Production Using Leaf Picking Treatment and NPK Fertilization”. Bogor, Bogor Agricultural Institute.
Syukur, M., Ritonga, A.W., Hakim, A., Istiqlal, M.R.A., Himawati, E., Sas, M.G.A, Sambarya. J., inventors; Bogor Agricultural Institute. (2020) “List of Plant Varieties”. Center for Plant Variety Protection and Agricultural Licensing, Indonesia. No: 869/PVHP/2020.
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2002). “Plant Physiology” (3rd ed.). Sinauer Associates Inc. Massachusetts. USA.
Trustinah, Kasno, A., and Moedjiono. (2001). Establishment of high yielding cowpea varieties. Bulletin of Palawija 2, 1-14.
Trustinah (2015). “Cowpea, A Potential Crop for Acidic Dry Land”. Research Institute for Various Nuts and Tubers.:http://balitkabi.litbang.pertanian.go.id/infotek/kacang-tunggak-komoditas-potensial-di- lahan-kering-masam/. [September 13, 2020]

Downloads

Published

2023-01-25

How to Cite

Saidah, F. Y., Purnamawati, H., & Lubis, I. (2023). Evaluation of Source and Sink Capacity of New Cowpea Varieties. Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 10(01), 38–45. https://doi.org/10.29244/jtcs.10.1.38-45