Performance of Convergent Breeding Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Lines in the Lowlands


  • Habibi Firmansah Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Agriculture IPB University
  • Yudiwanti Wahyu Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture IPB University
  • Amin Nur Cereal Testing and Instrumentation Center, Ministry of Agriculture



tropical wheat, good performance and lowland sensitivity index


The development of tropical wheat in Indonesia is currently confined to the availability of wheat’s optimal environments in the highlands. Wheat competes with major highland crops, such as vegetables, which also have high economic values. Despite this, the demand for wheat in Indonesia remains high, whether in the form of wheat flour, wheat meal, or oats. Wheat breeders are actively working to create various crossbreeds so that wheat can adapt and perform effectively in lowland areas. The convergent breeding method is one of the strategies employed to produce genotypes with superior performance. Convergent breeding enhances genetic diversity by incorporating superior traits from all parent plants. The breeding results expedite the emergence of genetic combinations between selected parents. This method involves combining several parent varieties with various traits, with the hope that their offspring will inherit all the characteristics of the crossed parents. Our study with wheat convergent breeding has reached the F6 generation, and in this current study we evaluated the performance of each observed trait in different environments, with the goal of determining the levels of homogeneity and homozygosity. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with three replications, and the crops were planted in various locations. The planting locations selected were those that are >1000 m above sea level (asl), and at a lowland of ± 250 m asl. Wheat performance based on stomatal characteristics showed a reduction in the lowland, which indicates a response to climatic conditions in a particular environment. The higher the environmental temperatures, the smaller the stomatal size, which reduces plant water loss. Noteworthy findings include the tallest plant in CBF-6. CAMN23(265), the highest number of tillers in CBF-6. CAMN233 and CBF-6.CAMN8(4), the largest flag leaf area in CBF-7.CAMN60, and the highest 100-seed weight, as well as overall yield in CBF-7.CAMN119. An analysis of the lowland sensitivity index identified ten moderate genotypes that could potentially adapt well and achieve optimal yields.


Agricultural Instrumentation Standardization Agency. (2023). “New Superior Varieties of Indonesian Wheat.” [July 1, 2023].

Céccoli, G., Ortiz, S.A.G., Buttarelli, M.S., Pisarello, M.L., Muñoz, F.F., Daurelio, L.D., Bouzo, C.A., Panigo, E.S., and Perez, A.A. (2022). Salinity tolerance determination in four sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids using yield parameters and principal components analysis model. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 67, 211–219.

Correia, P.M.P., Westergaard, J.C., da Silva, A.B., Roitsch, T., Carmo-Silva, E., and da Silva, J.M. (2022). High-throughput phenotyping of physiological traits for wheat resilience to high temperature and drought stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 73, 1-5.

Draz, I.S., Abou-Elseoud, M.S., Kamara, A.E.M., Alaa-Eldein, O.A.E., and El-Bebany, A.F. (2015). Screening of wheat genotypes for leaf rust resistance along with grain yield. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 60, 29–39.

Fender, A.C., Mantilla-Contreras, J., and Leuschner, C. (2011). Multiple environmental control of leaf area and its significance for productivity in beech saplings. Trees 25, 847–857. doi:10.1007/s00468-011-0560-z

Fischer, R.A., and Maurer, R. (1978). Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. I. Grain yield responses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 897-912.

Hallauer, A.R., and Miranda, J. (1988). “Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding” pp 33-67. Ames Iowa State University Press

Hamam, K.A., and Negim, O. (2014). Evaluation of wheat genotypes and some soil properties under saline water irrigation. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 59, 165–176.

Hammad, S.A.R., and Ali, O.A.M. (2014). Physiological and biochemical studies on drought tolerance of wheat plants by application of amino acids and yeast extract. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 59, 133–145.

Hu, H., Chen, L., Huang, Y., Wang, K., Bai, X., and Pan, H. (2023). CUT&tag-seq analysis of heat stress response in broiler liver provides novel insights into the improved thermotolerance by dietary phloretin. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 68, 12–20.

Lamba, K., Kumar, M., Singh, V., Chaudhary, L., Sharma, R., Yashveer, S., and Dalal, M.S. (2023). Heat stress tolerance indices for identification of the heat tolerant wheat genotypes. Scientific Reports 13. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-37634-8

Liu, X., Yin, B., Hu, Z., Bao, X., Wang, Y., and Zhen, W. (2021). Physiological response of flag leaf and yield formation of winter wheat under different spring restrictive irrigation regimes in the Haihe Plain, China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 20, 2343–2359. doi:10.1016/s2095-3119(20)63352-4

Ma, C., Xie, P., Zhang, K., Yang, J., Li, X., Liu, F., Lin, L., and Zhang, H. (2021). Contribution of the flag leaf to lead absorption in wheat grain at the grain-filling stage. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 225, 112722.

Mahdavi, S., Arzani, A., Maibody, S.A.M.M., and Kadivar, M. (2022). Grain and flour quality of wheat genotypes grown under heat stress. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 29, 103417.

Majhi, P.K. (2019). “Heritability and Its Genetic Worth for Plant Breeding.” AkiNik Publications.

Nur, A., Syahruddin, K., and Mejaya, M.J. (2015). Genetic improvement of tropical wheat tolerant to high temperatures and challenges in development in lowland areas. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development 34, 19.

Poudel, P.B., and Poudel, M.R. (2020). Heat stress effects and tolerance in wheat: a review. Journal of Biology and Today’s World 9, 1–6.

Regmi, S., Poudel, B., Ojha, B.R., Kharel, R., Joshi, P., Khanal, S., and Kandel, B.P. (2021). Estimation of genetic parameters of different wheat genotype traits in Chitwan, Nepal. International Journal of Agronomy 21, 1-10.

Said, A.A. (2014). Generation mean analysis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress conditions. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 59, 177–184.

Salim, B.B.M. (2016). Influence of biochar and seaweed extract applications on growth, yield, and mineral composition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under sandy soil conditions. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 61, 257–265.

Sembiring, H. (2016). “Technical Guidelines for WheatmCultivation Development 2016.” In Directorate General of Food Crops: Ministry of Agriculture.

Siddiq E, Vemireddy L, Nagaraju J. (2012). Basmati rice: genetics, breeding and trade. Agricultural Research 1, 25–36.

Sobir and Syukur, M. (2015). “Genetika Tanaman”. IPB Press, Bogor, Indonesia.

Stansfield, R. (1983). “Genetics”, translated by Mohidin A, Apandi, Lanny T (1991) pp. 78-82. Erlangga, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2002). “Plant Physiology: (3rd ed) pp 67-86. Sinauer Associates Publishers. Sunderland.

Tiwari, A., Prasad, S., Jaiswal, B., Gyanendra, K., Singh, S., and Singh, K.N. (2017). Effect of heat stress on yield attributing traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6, 2738–2744. doi:10.20546/ijcmas.2017.612.317

Wulandari, J.E., Yulianah, I., and Saptadi, D. (2016). Heritability and genetic progress of four F2 populations tomatoes (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.) in organic cultivation. Journal Plant Protection 4, 361-369.




How to Cite

Firmansah, H., Wahyu, Y., & Nur, A. (2024). Performance of Convergent Breeding Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Lines in the Lowlands. Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 11(01), 9–18.