The Effect of Fertilizer Treatment on the Morphology of Maize (Zea mays) Planted in An Intercropping System in the Immature Oil Palm Plantation

  • Alhaviz Alhaviz Graduate School of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). Jl Meranti, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia.
  • Hariyadi Hariyadi Departement of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). Jl Meranti, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia.
  • Supijatno Supijatno Departement of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). Jl Meranti, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia.
Keywords: intercropping, maize, nutrient content, oil palm

Abstract

Applying and optimizing an intercropping system between oil palm and seasonal crops such as maize in the immature palm oil plantation is one way of obtaining additional income for farmers until the main crop (oil palm) mature and ready to harvest. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of fertilizers, particularly nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) on the growth and production of maize in an intercropping system with oil palm. The experiment, using one-factor randomized complete block design, was conducted at the Cikabayan Experimental Station, IPB University, Indonesia, from August to December 2020. Four set-ups were prepared corresponding to four different fertilizer applications as follows: A0 (without treatment), A1 (240 g Urea + 80 g KCl + 320 g SP-36 per plot), A2 (480 g Urea + 160 g KCl + 320 g SP-36 per plot), A3 (720 g Urea + 240 g KCl + 320 g SP-36 per plot). Applying the highest dosages of N and K (A3), significantly increased plant height, fresh weight, number of leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, cob length, cob weight, and husk-free cob weight. Intercropping maize with immature oil palm did not affect the oil palm growth.

References

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. (2020). “Luas Penutupan Lahan Indonesia di Dalam dan di Luar Kawasan Hutan Tahun 2014-2019”. https://www.bps.go.id/statictable/2020/02/17/2084/luas-penutupan-lahan-indonesia-di-dalam-dan-di-luar-kawasan-hutan-tahun-2014-2019-menurut-kelas-ribu-ha-.html [July 13, 2020].
Blevins, D.G. (1994). Uptake, translocation, and function of essential mineral elements in crop plants. In “Physiology and Determination of Crop Yield” (G. A. Peterson, ed.). 259–275. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.
Assagaf, S.A.R. (2017). Pengaruh pemberian pupuk NPK Mutiara terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.) di desa Batu Boy Kec. Namlea Kab, Buru. Jurnal Ilmiah Agribisnis dan Perikanan 1, 73-78.
[Ditjenbun] Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan. (2018). “Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia Komoditas Kelapa sawit”. http://ditjenbun.pertanian.go.id/statistik-2018/kelapa sawit-2015-2017 [ October 14, 2019].
Erviyana, P. (2015). Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi produksi tanaman pangan jagung di Indonesia. Journal of Economics and Policy 2, 100-202.
Fi’liyah, Nurjaya, and Syekhfani. (2016). Pengaruh pemberian pupuk KCl terhadap N, P, K tanah dan serapan tanaman pada inceptisol untuk tanaman jagung di Situ Hilir, Cibungbulang, Bogor. Jurnal Tanah dan Sumberdaya Lahan 2, 329-337.
Harper J.E. (1994). Nitrogen metabolism In “Physiology and Determination of Crop Yield” (G. A. Peterson, ed.). 285-302. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.
Herman, Agus, F., and Las, I. (2009). Analisis finansial dan keuntungan yang hilang dari pengurangan emisi karbon dioksida pada perkebunan kelapa sawit. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 4,127-133.
Lazureanu, A., Diana, M., Gogoasia, M.A., Poiana, M., Harmanescu, I., Gergen. (2007). Influence of NPK fertilization on nutritional quality of tomatoes. Faculty of Food Processing Technology. Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine. Bul. USAMV-CN 64.
Marschner, P. (2012). “Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants” 3rd edition. 651pp. Academic Press, Elsevier Ltd, United States of America.
Nasamsir and Usman. (2019). Polikultur tanaman kelapa sawit (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) dengan tanaman jelutung (Dyera polyphylla). Jurnal Media Pertanian 2, 52-58.
Nazari Y. A. (2020). Kondisi status hara tanah dan jaringan tanaman kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) BPSBP Kalimantan Selatan. Ziraa’ah 3, 274-284.
Nchanji, Y.K., Nkongho, R.N., Mala, W.A., and Levang, P. (2016). Efficacy of oil palm intercropping by smallholders. Case study in South-West Cameroon. Agroforest System 90, 509-519.
Novianty, L. and Yunita T.R. (2020). Pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung (Zea mays L.) pada sistem agroforestri dengan gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis) di desa Jaharun B, Kecamatan Galang, Kabupaten Deli Serdang, Sumatra Utara. Journal of Natural Sciences 2, 72-83.
Olowoboko, T.B., Onasanya, O.O., Salami, O.T., and Azeez, J.O. (2017). Growth and uptake in maize as influenced by NPK fertilizer in green house experiment. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science 3, 1-10.
Persad K. and Singh P. (1990). Response of promising rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) varieties to nitrogen application in northwestern Himalayan region. Indian Journal Agricultural Science 7, 475-477.
Prajapati, K. and Modi, H.A. (2012). The importance of potassium in plant growth – a review. Indian Journal of Plant Sciences 1, 02-03.
Pratikta, D., Hartatik, S., and Wijaya, K.A. (2013). Pengaruh penambahan pupuk NPK terhadap produksi beberapa aksesi tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.). Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 2, 19-21.
[PPT] Pusat Penelitian Tanah (1983). “Term of Reference Tipe A, Jenis dan Macam Tanah di Indonesia Untuk Keperluan Survey dan Pemetaan Tanah Daerah Transmigrasi”. Proyek Penelitian Tanah Menunjang Transmigrasi (P3MT). Departemen Pertanian, Badan Pusat dan Pengembangan Pertanian Bogor.
Rahmawati (2017). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of maize composite variety Lamuru. Agrotech Journal 2, 36-41.
Rifai, A., Basuki, S., and Utomo, B. (2014). Nilai kesetaraan lahan budi daya tumpang sari tanaman tebu dengan kedelai: studi kasus di Desa Karangharjo, Kecamatan Sulang, Kabupaten Rembang. Widyariset 1, 59-70.
Shintarika, F., Sudradjat, and Supijatno. (2015). Optimasi dosis pupuk nitrogen dan fosfor pada tanaman kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) belum menghasilkan umur satu tahun. J. Agronomi Indonesia 3, 250-256.
Sinclair, T., Bennetto, R.D.M., and Muchow, R.O. (1990). Relative sensitivity of grain yield and biomass accumulation to drought in field grown maize. Crop Science 30, 690- 693.
Sofyan, E.T., Machfud, Y., Yeni, H., and Herdiansyah, G. (2019). Penyerapan unsur hara N, P dan K tanaman jagung manis (Zea mays Saccharata Sturt) akibat aplikasi pupuk Urea, Sp-36, Kcl dan pupuk hayati pada Fluventic Eutrudepts asal Jatinangor. Jurnal Agrotek Indonesia 1, 1-7.
Sopandie, D. (2013). “Fisiologi Adaptasi Tanaman Terhadap Cekaman Abiotik pada Agroekosistem Tropika”. IPB Press.
Suharta, N. (2010). Karakteristik dan permasalahan tanah marginal dari batuan sedimen masam di Kalimantan. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian 4, 139-146.
Sukarman, Suryani, E., and Husnain. (2021). Land suitability and direction of strategic agricultural commodities in East Kalimantan to support the development of the new nation’s capital of Republic of Indonesia. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan 1, 1-12.
Suwarto (2018). Reduction of urea fertilizer uses through application of livestock manures in an integrated farming of maize and cattle. Journal of Tropical Crop Science 1, 18-24.
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2002). “Plant Physiology”. 4th edition. Sunderland, Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publisher.
Yang, C., Fan, Z., and Chai, Q. (2018). Agronomic and economic benefits of pea/maize intercropping systems in relation to N fertilizer and maize density. Agronomy 52, 2-14
Published
2021-10-20